South China Sea Island Disputes



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Beech, H. (April 21, 2020). “U.S. Warships Enter Disputed Waters of South China Sea as Tensions With China Escalate”. New York Times.

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Bloomberg. (2011, June 9). Vietnam Says Chinese Boat Harassed Survey Ship; China Disputes. Retrieved from Bloomberg:

Broderick, K. (May 2015). “Chinese Activities in the South China Sea: Implications for the American Pivot to Asia”. Arlington, VA: Project 2019 Insitute.

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Choong, W. (2020, June 4). China and Japan’s Island Disputes. Retrieved from Lowy Institute – The Interpreter:

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CSIS: Center for Strategic & International Studies. (August 9, 2017). “Update: China’s Continuing Reclamation In The Paracels”. Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative.

Cunningham, N. (July 12, 2016). “Dispute Over South China Sea Is About More Than Oil and Gas, And Far From Over”. The Fuse: Igniting Conversations and Commentary About Energy.

Dan, L. (2018, August 8). Diaoyu Islands Dispute: A Chinese Perspective. Retrieved from The Diplomat:

Dawson, C. (November 27, 2012). “Japan’s Spat With China Takes Big Toll on Tourism”. Wall Street Journal.

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Edmund J. Burke, e. a. (2018). “China’s Military Activities in the East China Sea: Implications for Japan’s Air Self-Defense Force”. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation. (December 9, 2008). “Sino-Japanese Relations: Issues for U.S. Policy”.

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Ganguly, S. (October 14, 2019). “The Leaders of the World’s Two Biggest Countries Meet — And Come Away with Little Progress”. Foreign Affairs.

Gnanasagaran, A. (22 July 2018, Reprinted 29 May 2020). “Fishy business in the South China Sea”. The Asean Post.

Hafeez, S. Y. (22 May 2015). “The Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands Crises of 2004, 2010, and 2012: A Study of Japanese-Chinese Crisis Management”. Asia-Pacific Review, Pages 73-99.

Hall, T. (Vol. 4, Issue 2, September 2019). “More Significance than Value: Explaining Developments in the Sino-Janpanese Contest over the Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands”. Texas National Security Review, 11-37.

Hart, M. (2018, April 4). Brunei Abandons South China Sea Claim for Chinese Finance. Retrieved from Geopolitical Monitor:

Hayton, B. (11 July 2018). “Two Years On, South China Sea Ruling Remains a Battleground for the Rules-Based Order”. Chatham House.

He, Y. (n.d.). The Impact of Chinese National Identity on Sino-Japanese Relations. Joint US-Korean Academic Studies, 81-94.

Herscovitch, B. (August 28, 2017). “A Balanced Threat Assessment of China’s South China Sea Policy”. Cato Insitute.

Hsu, K. (2014). Air Defense Identification Zone Intended to Provide China Greater Flexibility to Enforce East China Sea Claims. WA DC: U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission.

II, P. E. (November 20, 2017). “A wasted opportunity for the West Philippine Sea”. Rappler News.

Ivan Watson, e. a. (July 2018). “The Battle for the South China Sea: CNN takes a rare look at the disputed waters, where China and the US are fighting for influence”. CNN.

Kaplan, R. (2014). Asia’s Cauldron. New York: Random House.

Kemenade, W. v. (November 2006). “China and Japan: Partners or Permanent Rivals?”. The Hague: Netherlands Institute of International Relations.

Kwam, J. (2020). “Taming Neighbors: Exploring China’s Statecraft to Change Neighboring Countries’ Policies and Their Effects”. Asian Perspective, Volume 44, Number 1, Winter 2020, Johns Hopkins University Press.

LaGrone, S. (August 7, 2015). “Report: Chinese Navy Warship Rams Two Vietnamese Fishing Vessels”. USNI News.

Lee, Y. N. (April 13, 2020). “Beijing may be using the coronavirus pandemic to advance its interests in the disputed South China Sea”. CNBC.

Liangping, B. B. (November 20, 2018). “China building on new reef in South China Sea, says think tank”. Reuters.

Libby, A. H. (April 5, 2017). “Asian Shadows: The Hidden History of World War II in the Pacific”. The Hudson Institute.

Mabasa, R. (August 8, 2017). “Japan, Australia, US to PH: Follow the ruling you won”. Manila Bulletin.

Maizland, L. (February 5, 2020). “China’s Modernizing Military”. Council on Foreign Relations.

Mandhana, N. (September 10, 2018). “China Poised to Win Major Victory in Sea Dispute With Help of Philippine Resources Deal”. The Wall Street Journal.

Martinez, L. (May 6, 2019). “Why the US Navy sails past disputed islands claimed by China”. ABC News.

Mastro, O. S. (2020). “South China Sea of troubles”. The Economist (The World in 2020).

McKenzie, K. (10-13-2014). “Troubled Waters: Security, Economic Development, And the Senkaku/diaoyu Islands”. Illinois State University ISU ReD: Research and eData.

Michael Green, e. a. (June 14, 2017). “Counter-Coercion Series: Senkaku Islands Nationalization Crisis”. Asian Maritime Transparency Initiative.

Morton, K. (n.d.). “China’s ambition in the South China Sea: is a legitmate maritme order possible”.

Morton, K. (20 June 2016). “China’s ambitionin the South China Sea: is a legitimate maritime order possible?”. Wiley Online Library.

O’Dea, C. R. (2019). “Asia Rising: Ships of State?”. Naval College Review, Volume 72, Number 1, Winter 2019, Article 5.

Panda, A. (July 12, 2016). “International Court Issues Unamimous Award in ‘Philippine v. China’ Case on South China Sea”. The Diplomat.

Panda, A. (May 12, 2015). “1 Year Later: Reflections on China’s Oil Rig ‘Sovereignty-Making’ in the South China Seas”. The Diplomat.

Patrick M. Cronin, e. a. (January 1, 2012). “Cooperation from Strength: The United States, China and the South China Sea”. Center for New American Security (JSTOR).

Paul, M. (2016). “A ‘Great Wall of Sand’ in the South China Sea: Political, Legal, and Military Aspects of the Island Dispute”. Berlin: SWP Research Paper.

Polling, G. B. (January 10, 2020). “The Conventional Wisdom On China’s Island Bases Is Dangerously Wrong”. War on the Rocks.

Pretat, H. (2020, May 12). China’s Chance to Demonstrate Leadership in the South China Sea. Retrieved from The Diplomat:

Rafiq Dossani, S. W. (2016). Maritime Issues in the East and South China Seas. Maritime Issues in the East and South China Seas (pp. 1-136). Santa Monica: Rand Corporation.

Reed, J. (January 23, 2019). “South China Sea: Fishing on the frontline of Beijing’s ambitions”. Financial Times.

Rinehart, B. E. (2015). China’s Air Defense Identification Zone . WA DC: Congressional Research Services.

ROBERT A. MANNING, P. M. (2020, May 14). Under Cover of Pandemic, China Steps Up Brinkmanship in South China Sea. Retrieved from Foreign Policy:

Robert D. Blackwill, e. a. (Updated May 28, 2020). “Territorial Disputes in the South China Sea”. Council on Foreign Relations (Global Conflict Tracker).

Ross, E. (March 29, 2017). “How and Why China Is Building Islands in the South China Sea”. Newsweek.

Roy-Chaudhury, S. (2016, January 8). The Senkaku Islands Dispute. Retrieved from International Policy Digest:

Schiavenza, M. (2013, December 4). How a Tiny Island Chain Explains the China-Japan Dispute. Retrieved from The Atlantic:

Shanker, I. J. (September 16, 2012). “Beijing Mixes Messages over Anti-Japan Protests”. New York Times.

Shen, M. V. (Vol. 16, No. 1 (Spring 2016)). ‘China’s Air Defence Identification Zone: Building Security through Lawfare”. The China Review (JSTOR), pp. 121-150.

Shullman, D. (January 22, 2019). “Protect the Party: China’s growing influence in the developing world”. Brookings.

Smith, J. M. (2019, January 19). China’s Rise and (Under?) Balancing in the Indo-Pacific: Putting Realist Theory to the Test. Retrieved from

Smith, S. A. (April 22, 2013). “A Sino-Japanese Clash in the East China Sea”. Council on Foreign Relations.

South China Morning Post. (2019, February 16). Explained: South China Sea dispute. Retrieved from Explainer-South China Morning Post:

Stashwick, S. (2017, December 17). Paracel Islands dispute. Retrieved from The Diplomat:

Swaine, M. D. (n.d.). Chinese Views Regarding the Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands Dispute. Pittsburgh: China leadership Monitor No 41 – Carnegie Mellon Endowment.

Takenaka, K. (2012, September 11). Japan buys disputed islands, China sends patrol ships. Retrieved from Reuters:

Tatsushi Arai, S. G. (n.d.). Clash of National Identities-China, Japan, and the East China Sea Territorial Dispute. Washington DC: Woodrow Wilson Institute .

The Fletcher School. (2020). Law of the Sea Policy Primer. Medford: The Fletcher School.

The Guardian. (July 17, 2014). “Despite Oil Rig Removal, China and Vietnam row still simmers”. The Guradian.

Tonnesson, S. (2012). THE PARACELS: THE “OTHER” SOUTH CHINA SEA DISPUTE. Asian Perspective, 145-169.

Tonnesson, S. (January 11, 2019). “Fish for Peace in the South China Sea”. Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative/CSIS: Center for Strategic & International Studies.

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VOA. (2012, August 17). China-Japan Island Dispute Has Long History. Retrieved from VOA:,the%20islands%20over%20to%20Japan.

Wang, K. (2014). “Rethinking Chinese Territorial Disputes: How the Value of Contested Land Shapes Territorial Policies”. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Scholarly Commons.

Watkins, D. (July 30, 2015). “What China Has Been Building in the South China Sea”. New York Times.

Weiss, J. D. (08 July 2016). “Nationalist Protests, Government Disputes, and the Risk of Escalation in Interstate Disputes”. Security Studies.

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Whiteman, H. (May 19, 2014). “How an Oil Rig Sparked anti-China riots in Vietnam”. CNN News.

Zhang, F. (20 September 2017). “Chinese Thinking on the South China Sea and the Future of Regional Security”. Political Science Quarterly (Wiley Online Library).